Links & Law - Information about legal aspects of search engines, linking and framing

Hyperlink & Search Engine Law News  Decisions & Court Documents Worldwide Legal Resources (Hyperlink & Search Engine Law Articles) Linking Law Cases Search Engine Law Publications by Dr. Stephan Ott Technical    Background

Publications in English

199619971998199920002001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 - 2006 - 2007 - 2008 - 2009 - 2010 - 2011



§         Bolin, Brad, Linking and Liability, 1996-2000

§         Ezor, Jonathan, Opinion: Avoiding trademark, copyright infringement, December 1996

§         Jackson, Matt, Linking Copyright to Homepages, Fed. Comm. L. J. Vol. 49, 1996/97

§         McVeagh, Russel / Bartleet, McKenzie , Hypertext Links: Are they legal?, December 1996

§         Oppedahl & Larson, Web Law FAQ, 1996-2000















  • Benkler, Yochai, Property, Commons, and the First Amendment: Towards a Core Common Infrastructure, 2001, p 74-76

  • Blocher, Walter, Austria: Responsibility of Registrars and Liability for Hyperlinks, CRI 2001, 186  

  • Boman, Mats / Lindblom, Fredrik, Hyper-Linking may be a Criminal Offence – The Swedish MP-3 Case, E.I.P.R. 2001, pp. 55 ff.

  • Brown, Peter / Thornburgh, Don, Legal Implications of Hyperlinks, 2001

  • Coombes, Sarah Whalley, Deep Linking, copyright world 2001, 16

  • Dogan, Stacey, Linking to Infringement: A Comparative and Cross-Border Analysis, BILETA, 2001

  • Drew, Jeremy, The weakest link?, Information Technology Briefing September 2001

  • Duggal, Pavan, To Link or Not to Link – The Judicial View, Cyberlaw India, 2001

  • Elkin-Koren, Niva, Let the Crawlers Crawl: On Virtual Gatekeepers and the Right to Exclude Indexing, 26 Dayton Law Review 180 (2001)

  • Erskine, J. V., Don’t believe the hyperlink-potential liability of issuers under anti-fraud provisions of the federal securities laws for embedding hyperlinks to analyst’s reports on their web sites, Seton Hall Law Review, 2001, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 190-229

  • Fausett, Bret, Linking Legalities, 2001

  • Gijrath, Serge / Gorissen, Bart Jan, Applying the Database Act to On Line Information Services, copyright world 2001, 25

  • Greenleaf, Graham, Copyright protection  (II): Hypertext, intermediaries and defences, 2001

  • Hoffmann, Ivan, Linking And Crawling Issues, 2001  

  • Javier Felipe Sanchez Iregui, Linking, framing and meta-tagging, new ways of copyright and trademark infringement, 2001 

  • Menard, Brian Paul, And the Shirt is off your Back: Universal City Studios, DeCSS, And The Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Rutgers Computer & Technology Law Journal 2001, 371

  • O’Rourke, Maureen, Property Rights And Competition On The Internet: In Search Of An Appropriate Analogy, 16 Berkeley Technology Law Journal 561 (2001)

  • Permèus, Anders, Applying Swedish Law to Web Sites, The Computer & Internet Lawyer 2001, 23  

  • Petteys, David: The Freedom to Link?: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act Implicates the First Amendment in Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes, 25 Seattle University Law Review 287 ff. (2001), Article Excerpt

  • Practice Aid - Linking Agreement, Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal Volume 13, Numer 8 - August 2001

  • Quinn, Eugene: Web Surfing 101: The Evolving Law Of Hyperlinking, Barry Law Review 37 (2001)  

  • Romanek, Broc, Hyperlinks

  • Sableman, Mark, Link Law Revisited: Internet Linking Law At Five Years, Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Vol. 16:3, (Fall 2001) ,  other source; July 2002 supplement  

  • Strowel, Alain / Ide, Nicolas: Liability with regard to hyperlinks, 24 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 403 (2001)  

  • Szwider, Jeremy, Linking through the laws of the Internet, ZDNet Australia

  • Vermeer, M., Unfair Competition Online and the Eureopean Electronic Commerce Directive, Ann. Surv. Int'l & Comp. L. 87-99 Spr. 2001 

  • Webster, Michael, Unauthorised Hypertext Links, July 2001

  • Young, Eric W. Note. Promoting the progress of science and the useful arts by demoting the progress of science and the useful arts? (Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes, 111 F. Supp. 2d 294, S.D.N.Y. 2000.) 28 N. Ky. L. Rev. 847-876 (2001)




  • "Something More" Than Accessibility, E-Mail Link Needed to Get Out-of-State Jurisdiction, Electronic Commerce & Law 2002, 1017

  • Blocher, Walter, Austria: Implementing the E-Commerce Directive, CRI 2002, 122-124   

  • Cantwell, Michael K. Linking and framing on the Internet: recent developments and the boundaries of fair use. 49 J. Copyright Soc'y U.S.A. 853-896 (2002) 

  • Case Comment, United States Appeals Court Rules that Inline Linking is Copyright Infringement, Copyright World May 2002, 9-10

  • Constitutional Law – Free Speech Clause - Second Circuit Classifies The Posting And Linking Of Computer Code As Expressive Conduct Rather Than Pure Speech, 115 Harv. L. Rev. 2042 (2002)

  • Deffner, Mark, Unlawful Linking: First Amendment Doctrinal Difficulties in Cyberspace, Minnesota Intell. Prop. Review 111 (2002)

  • Dogan, Stacey: Infringement Once Removed: The Perils of Hyperlinking to Infringing Content, 87 Iowa Law Review 829-908 (2002)

  • Dr Maria Chetcuti Cauchi, Too much hype about hyperlinking?, 3/20/2002, Malta Financial & Business Times

  • Evans, Mark, Protection of Data on the Internet, Intellectual Property Quarterly 2002, 50

  • Fausett, Bret, Into the Deep, October 2002

  • Friedman, William, The Good Guys Win in the Movies, CRI 2002, 40

  • Frum, Christi, In Search of Safe Linking,   

  • Garrote, Ignacio Javier, Linking and Framing: A Comparative Law Approach, E.I.P.R. 2002, 184

  • German Court Declines to Disturb Ruling That Search Engine's Link Violated Database Law, Electronic Commerce & Law 2002, 776

  • Haeck, Jaap, Netherlands: Limits to an ISP's Liability?, CRI 2002, 153-154

  • Hayes, David, Liability of Online Service Providers: Part III, The Computer & Internet Lawyer Volume 19, Number 12, December 2002, 12

  • Hilberg, Christopher, Trademark and Hyperlinks: A Policy Analysis, The Computer & Internet Lawyer 2002, Number 6 (June), 1-6

  • Hilberg, Christopher, Trademark and Hyperlinks: A Policy Analysis, Part II, The Computer & Internet Lawyer, July 2002, p. 12-22

  • Hilden, Julie, Should linking be immune from lawsuits?,

  • ISPs, HTML, Internet Hyperlinking Do Not As a Matter of Law, Infringe on BT Patent, Electronic Commerce & Law 2002, 904  

  • Jung Sang-jo: Legal Issues in Hypertext Reference Links, 6 (2) Journal of Korea Information Law 1-21 (2002)

  • Kelley, Martha. Note. Is liability just a link away? Trademark dilution by tarnishment under the federal Trademark Dilution Act of 1995 and hyperlinks on the World Wide Web. 9 J. Intell. Prop. L. 361-386 (2002)  

  • Lastowka, Gregory, Search Engines Under Siege: Do Paid Placement Listiungs Infringe Trademarks?, Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal Volume 14, Number 7 July 2002

  • Links to Commercial Sites Qualify As Indicia Of Bad Faith Registration and Use of Domain, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2002, 722-723

  • Lubitz, Markus. Liability of Internet service providers regarding copyright infringement--comparison of U.S. and European law, IIC 2002, 26, 33 f. (dealing with the question whether a service provider would be disqualified from the safe harbor granted by Sec. 512 (d) DMAC, based solely on evidence that it had viewed the infringing website). Also see the Senate Committee Report on DMCA, Calender No. 358, 105th Congress, 2nd Session   

  • October 3, 2002: Contreras, Jorge / Breuer, Christian / Barkow, Lyn, The Tangled Web of Global Deep-Linking Rules, Hale and Dorr LLP  

  • Raysman, Richard / Brown, Peter, The Ninth Circuit Rules on Linking and Framing by Search Engines, New York Law Journal, March 12, 2002   

  • Rowe, Heather / Baseby, Francesca, BT Hyperlink Patent Dispute - Did BT Invent The Hyperlink? Obviously not as the US Courts have said so, Computer Law & Security Report 2002, 439-441  

  • Rowland, D./Campbell, Content and Access Agreements: An Analysis of Some of the Legal Issues Arising from Linking and Framing, Int'l Rev. L. Computers & Tech, 171-186 JL 2002 

  • Scott, Robert M. Student paper. Deep linking: policy and rule considerations for safeguarding open Internet navigation. 1 J. on Telecomm. & High Tech. L. 355-380 (2002) 

  • Ward, Eric / Levy, Paul Alan, Linker vs. Lawyer: The Deep Link Controversy Continues, SearchDay

  • Ward, Eric, Linking Legalities: What You Need to Know, SearchDay

  • Web Site's Inline Link to Copyrightes Image Not Fair Use, Infringed Public Display, Electronic Commerce & Law 2002, 138

  • Wright-Mitchell, Jane, British Telecommunications v. Prodigy, MBF Article



  • Albert, G.P., Abbati, R.A., Metatags, keywords and links: recent developments addressing trademark threats in cyberspace, 40 no1 San Diego L. Rev. 341-73 Winter 2003

  • Arriba Soft Case Called Most Important Statement in 2002 on Performance Rights, Electronic Commerce & Law 2003, 278  

  • Berkman, Robert, Copyright Issues Present Ongoing Dilemma: To Link or Not To Link? 

  • Clark, Mark, Fair Use? Search Engines v. copyright owners, Copyright World May 2003, 23-25

  • Court Finds "No Unfairness" in Disclosing Forum Selection Clause Via Internet Hyperlink, Electronic Commerce & Law 2003, 614  

  • Recommendation report: 'Hyperlinks: legal status', Internet Rights Forum

  • Köster, Oliver / Jürgens, Uwe, Liability for Links in Germany

  • Müller, Björn, The legality of Deep-links in Germany, Communications Law, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2003, p. 375-376

  • Padawer, Heidi S., Note. Google this: search engine results weave a web for trademark infringement actions on the Internet. 81 Wash. U. L.Q. 1099-1122 (2003)

  • Remand Needed to Decide Whether Linking To Framed Full Images Was Fair Use, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2003, 721

  • Scheller, Brad M. Casenote. Hey, keep your links to yourself! Legal challenges to thumbnails and inline linking on the Web and the potential implications of a first impression decision in ... (Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corp., 280 F.3d 934, 9th Cir. 2002.) 10 Vill. Sports & Ent. L.J. 415-456 (2003)

  • Search Engine Results Rankings Are Opinion, Protected Speech Under First Ammendment, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2003, 557-558

  • Staples, M.C., Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corp., 18 no1 Berkely Tech. L.J. 69-91, Annual Review 2003

  • Summary and Comment to Norwegean First Instance Court: The DVD Case against Jon Johansen, CRI 2003, 50 ff.  

  • Visser, Coenraad, South Africa: New Liability Regime for ISPs, CRi 2003, 94 ff.




  • Bing, Jon, Norway: The DVD Case- Summary and Comment, CRI 2004, 53-55

  • Deep Linking, Framing, Inlining and Extension of Copyrights: Recent Cases in Common Law Jurisdictions, Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law

  • Dahm, Andrew L., Note. Database protection v. deep linking. 82 Tex. L. Rev. 1053-1089 (2004)

  • Hofer, Felix, The legal challenges of search engine marketing

  • Google Keyword-Triggered Ads Don't Infringe, But Use of "Geico" in Sponsored Links Does, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 1070

  • Google's Sale of Marks as Search Terms Challenged, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 477

  • Google, Trademark Owner Debate Whether Use of Mark to Trigger Ad Is Commercial Use, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 791-792

  • Joyce, Stephen, Links to Competitor's Web Site Did Not Violate Norwegian Copyright, Marketing Laws, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 162

  • Le Lu, Guillaume, Viaticum & Luteciel vs. Google - Summary & Comment, CRI 2004, 116-119

  • Links from Infringing URL to Gripe Sites Implicate Free Speech and Can't Be Enjoined, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 748-749 (about the Nissan Motor Co. v. Nissan Computer Corp. verdict)

  • Link to Business With Forum Contacts No Support for Jurisdiction Over Site Operator, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 406 f.

  • Peguera, Miquel, Spanish report on the Liability of internet intermediaries, UOC, 2004

  • Paid Links to Sites Selling Pirate Devices Sufficient to Support Comcast's DMCA Claim, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 711

  • Sale of AdWords to Rivals Alleged To Constitute Commercial "Use of Mark", Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 808

  • Search Engine's Sale of Mark as Trigger For Banner Ad is Actionable Trademark Use, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 772

  • Search Engines Sued for Gambling Ads; Seek Disgorgement at Rate of $13 Per Click, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 697

  • Unlabeled Banner Ads Keyed to Mark May Constitute Initial Interest Confusion, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 55-56

  • van der Linden-Smith, Google - Searching a legal context, JurPC Web-Dok. 259/2004

  • Walker, Craig, Application of the DMCA Safe Harbor Provisions to Search Engines, Virginia Journal of Law & Technology, Winter 2004, Vol. 9 No. 2, p. 1-23

  • Warnecke, Michael, Search Law Operators in Europe Find Law Uncertain on Linking, Keyword Liability, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2004, 970-971


  • Allen, Ruth, Google Library: Why all the fuss?, Copyright Reporter Vol 23 No 4 (December 2005), 105-111

  • Arnott, Alan, New Internet law confirmed after Federal Court cracks down on hyperlinker and ISP, Computer & Law 2005, September issue, pp. 17-18

  • Authors Guild, Authors Allege Google's Online Card Catalog infringes Copyrights,  Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 935-936

  • Band, Jonathan, The Google Print Library Project: A Copyright Analysis

  • Becker, Jeffrey / Patel, Purvi, Recent Trademark Challenges in Cyberspace and the Growth of the Initial Interest Confusion and Nominative Fair Use Doctrines, Computer Law Review and Technology Journal, Vol IX, 1-39

  • Chinese Web Portal, Facing Lawsuits, Removes Link to Free Unauthorized Music, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 1041-1042

  • Chinese Search Site Ordered To Cease Offering Links to Sound Recordings, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 901

  • Dockins, Michael. Comment. Internet links: the good, the bad, the tortious, and a two-part test. 36 U. Tol. L. Rev. 367-404 (2005)

  • Feig, Erik / Westermeier, Keyword Advertising: Why All the Fuss?, CRi 2005, 48-56

  • German Appeals Court Upholds Ruling Requiring News Agency to Remove Link, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 792

  • German Court Holds Meta-Search Site Liable For Content Created by Other Search Engines, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 320-321

  • German Court Orders Removal of Link To Site Selling DVD Circumvention Software, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 271

  • Goldman, Eric, "Deregulating Relevancy in Internet Trademark Law" . Emory Law Journal, Vol. 54, 2005

  • Goldman, Eric, Search Engine Bias and the Demise of Search Engine Utopianism

  • Google AdWords Draws Another Lawsuit; New Action Alleges Unfair Competition, Fraud, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 902-903

  • Google Library Project Temporarily Halted to Allow Copyright Owner Response, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 826-827

  • Google's Mark-Triggered Sponsored Links Deemed Actionable Use of Another's Trademark, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 361

  • Graber, David, Extra Delivery Costs Were Unlawfully Hidden Behind Vague "More Info" Hyperlink, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 301

  • Importance of search in public sphere prompts discussion of regulating industry, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 1155-1156

  • Index of Links to News Articles Doesn't Infringe Copyrights, Says Google, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 679

  • Joslove, Bradley / Krylov, Andrèi, Dangerous Liaisons - Liability in the European Union for hypertext linking and search engine services, CRi 2005, 33-39

  • Link from Forum Site to Defendant's Site Is Insufficient Basis to Establish Jurisdiction, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 463-464

  • Linking Plus Modifications to Linked-To Site May Suffice to Trigger Infringement Liability, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 1053-1054

  • Long-Awaited Opinion in GEICO Case Highlights Flawed Survey Methodology, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 812

  • Macaw, Misha Gregory, Google, Inc. v. American Blind & Wallpaper Factory, Inc.: A Justification for the Use of Trademarks as Keywords to Trigger Paid Advertising Placements in Internet Search Engine Results, Rutgers Computer & Technology Law Journal v. 32 p1-61, 2005

  • Negligence, Unjust Enrichment Claims Dismissed in Google "Clickfraud" Litigation, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 874

  • Perfect 10' Litigation Revisits Fair Use of Thumbnails Under Kelly v. Arriba Soft, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 863-864

  • Schulz, Wolfgang / Held, Thorsten / Laudien, Arne, Search Engines as Gatekeepers of Public Communication: Analysis of the German framework applicable to internet search engines including media law and anti trust law, German Law Journal

  • Search King Inc. v. Google Technology, Inc., Berkeley Technology Law Journal v19 no1 p551 Annual Review 2004

  • Simple Headlines are not copyrightable, Google argues in dispute with Agence France, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 1022-1023

  • Speer, Lawrence, French Trademark Ruling Against Google Keyword Advertising Upheld on Appeal, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 296-297

  • Speer, Lawrence, Google Infringed Designer's Mark By Selling Similar Search Engine Keywords, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 150

  • Speer, Larence, Use of Hotels' Marks as Keywords Deemed Infringing by French Court, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 93

  • Study of DMCA Takedown Notices Finds High Incidence of Questionable Use, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 1151

  • Suit Alleges "Click Fraud" at Google, Asks Search Engine to Track, Pay Customers, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2005, 680

  • Troxclair, Search Engines and Internet Advertisers: Just One Click Away from Trademark Infringement?, Washington and Lee Law Review v62 no3 p 1365-1407, 2005

  • Zynda, Ticketmaster Corp. v., Inc: Preserving Minimum Requirements of Contract on the Internet, Berkeley Technology Law Journal v19 no1 p495-518 Annual Review 2004



  • Advertiser Sues Yahoo Over Pay-Per-Click-Program, The Computer & Internet Lawyer, issue 7/2006, p. 28 f. 

  • AFP Gets More Time to Match Works to Google News, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 799

  • Ayazi, Sara, Search Engines Score Another Perfect 10: The Continued Misuse of Copyrighted Images on the Internet, North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology, Volume 7, Issue 2, Spring 2006, 367-396

  • Barrett, Margreth, Internet Trademark Suits and the Demise of "Trademark Use," 39 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 371 (2006)

  • Court Says Government Will Get Google Data It Seeks to Defend Online Pornography Law, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 302-303

  • Defining Scope of Display Right Online Becomes Key Issue in Perfect 10 Appeal, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 807-808

  • Fair Use Implications of Thumbnails Revisited by Ninth Circuit in Perfect 10, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 830-831

  • French Appeals Court Upholds Finding That Sale of Mark as Keyword is Infringing, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 755-756

  • French Publisher Sues Google, Alleges Book Indexing Violates Copyrights, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 671- 672

  • Gasser, Urs, "Regulating Search Engines: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead" . Yale Journal of Law & Technology, Vol. 9, p. 124, 2006 Available at SSRN:

  • German Publishers’ Group Turned Away In Bid to Halt Google Book Search Project,  Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 775-776

  • Givan, Sarah, Using Trademarks as Location Tools on the Internet: Use in Commerce?, The ICFAI Journal of Cyber Law, May 2006, 61-79

  • Google Advertisers Bound by Forum Selection Clause Despite Adhesion Contract Context, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 1050-1051

  • Google Click Fraud Case Nears Settlement, Potentially Clearing Slate With All Advertisers, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 303-304

  • Google Cleared From Liability For Keyword Ads Tied to Trademark, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 992

  • Google Did Not Breach Ad Contract By Barring Use of Mark in Comparative Ads, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 777-778

  • Google Doing „Reasonable“ Job Pruning Out Invalid Links, Independent Expert Tells Court, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 818

  • Google Fights DOJ Subpoena Seeking Random Internet Searches, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 99

  • Google Library Controversy Continues Among Industry Stakeholders, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 541-542

  • Google Likely Infringes by Displaying Thumbnail Versions of Copyrightes Photos, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 241-243

  • Google, MSN Seek Exit Strategy In Dispute With Belgian Publishers, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 1048-1049

  • Google Urges Australian Senate To Adopt Broader Fair USe Exemptions, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 1124-1125

  • In-Line Linking Is Form of "Display" Perfect 10 Tells Ninth Circuit Panel, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 1126-1127

  • Kaslioglu, Evrim, Trademark Infringements in Cyberspace: The Use of Another's Trademarks in Metatags, published in: Kierkegaard, Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in Information Technology

  • Klein, Davis, Modzeleski, Buyers beware (U.S. Courts continue to differ on the issue of use in the context of search engine keyword-triggered advertising), Trademark World 193, 39-42

  • Krog, The Norwegian "Napster case" - Do hyperlinks constitute the "making available to the public" as a main or accessory act?, Computer Law & Security Report 2006, 73-77

  • Leibowitz, Wendy, Zest for Search Engine Optimization Places New Demands on Trademark Lawyers' Ethics, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 688- 690

  • Loss of User "Trust" in Google Trumps Government Need for Search Query Logs, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 315

  • Making Your Mark on Google, Harvard Journal of Law & Technology v. 18 no 2 p 479-493

  • Meta Tag Artifacts Not Enough to Merit Injunction, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 977

  • MPAA Files Seven Copyright Suits Aimed For First Time at Newsgroups, Indexing Sites, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 244-245

  • Nicole Bashor, Comment, The Cache Cow: Can Caching and Copyright Co-exist?, 6 J.MARSHALL REV. INTELL. PROP. L. 101

  • Niiranen, Ossi, Online Access to the World's Libraries, CRI 2006, 65-70

  • Nimmer, Raymond, "Google Print Project" - Unfair Use of Copyright, CRI 2006, 1-6

  • Nominative Fair Use Defense Rejected In Keyword Dispute Involving Sponsored Links, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 389

  • Otterwell, Lucy / Dominic, Bray, Search for answers, Copyright World, Issue 154, 22-25

  • Pasquale, Frank A., "Rankings, Reductionism, and Responsibility" (February 25, 2006). Seton Hall Public Law Research Paper No. 888327 Available at SSRN:

  • Powell, Eddie, Playing with Fire?, Copyright World, Issue 153, 16-18

  • Purchase of Trademarked Term as Search Engine Keyword Held Not "Use in Commerce", Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 375

  • Purchase, Use of Another's Mark for Search Engine Advertising Held "Use in Commerce", Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 1061

  • Reston, Westermeier, Perfect 10 v. Google, Remarks, CRI 2006, 88-89

  • Search Engine Archiving of Web pages Is not Copyright Infringement if Door is Open, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 123

  • Search Engine’s Sale of Trademark Terms As Keywords Ruled Commercial Use of Mark, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 794

  • Travis, Hannibal, "Google Book Search and Fair Use: iTunes for Authors, or Napster for Books?" . University of Miami Law Review, Vol. 61, pp. 601-681, 2006 Available at SSRN:

  • University of Wisconsin Libraries Join Google Book Search Project, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 1044-1045

  • Web Search Is Not A “Public Function” Requiring Google to Protect Free Speech, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2006, 768

  • Yohan Benizri, "L'hypertexte: mise à jour, mise à disposition et mise à mort" (forthcoming, University of Ottawa Law and Technology Journal, Summer 2006)


  • Advertisers Not Liable for AdWords' Broad Matching of Key Words to Protected Phrases, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 458

  • Allgrove, Ben / Ganley, Ben, Search Engines, Data Aggregators and UK Copyright Law: A Proposal, E.I.P.R. 2007, 227-237

  • Allgrove, Ben, The search engine's dilemma: implied licence to crawl and cache?, Journal of Intellectual Property & Practice, 2007, Vol.2, No. 7, pages 437-438

  • At Meeting, EU Data Privacy Officials Pledge To Probe Data Retained by All Search Engines, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 601-602

  • Baars, Wiebke / Schuler, Marc / Lloyd, Charles, Keyword-Advertising, CRi 2007, 137-142

  • Band, Jonathan, The Perfect 10 Trilogy, CRi 2007, 142-148

  • Belgian Publishers Win New Victory in Ongoing Copyright Dispute with Google, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 177-178

  • Blakeney, Simone, Adverse to AdWords? An Overview of the Recent Cases Relating to Google Adwords, C.L.R.T. 2007, 83-87

  • Chandler, Jennifer A. , "A Right to Reach an Audience: An Approach to Intermediary Bias on the Internet" . Hofstra Law Review, 2008 Available at SSRN:

  • Chopra, Samir / White, Laurence, Privacy and Artificial Agents, or, Is Google Reading My Email?

  • Denis-Leroy, Laurence, Liability for Adwords Services in France, CRI 2007, 65-68

  • Efroni, Zohar, Keywording in Search Engines as Trademark Infringement - Issues Arising from Matim Li v. Crazy Line, IIC 2/2007, 204-223

  • EU Privacy Chiefs to Query Google On Data Collection, Storage Policies, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 496-497

  • Fitzgerald, Brian / O'Brien, Damien / Fitzgerald, Anne, Search Engine Liablity for Copyright Infringement

  • FTC Exam of Google-DoubleClick Deal Should Order Use of "Opt-In" Data Policy, Groups Say, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 554-555,575

  • German Trial Court Rules That "Framing" Web Content is Infringement, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 157-158

  • Google, American Blind Settlement Leaves AdWords Controvers Unsettled, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 818-819

  • Google Enjoys First Amendment Right To Exclude Ads it Deems Objectionable, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 216-217

  • Google Confirms FTC Review Of Proposed DoubleClick Purchase, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 514

  • Google Will Limit Retention to 18 Months In Response to EU Officials' Data Concerns, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 574

  • Grimmelmann, James, The Structure of Search Engine Law

  • Grogg, Jill / Ashmore, Beth, Google Book Search Libraries and Their Digital Copies

  • Gupta, Apar, Liability of Intermediaries in India: From Troubled Waters to Safe Harbours, C.T.L.R. 2007, 60-65

  • Klein, Sheldon / Huffnagle, Henry, Split Decisions: The Issue of "Use" in the Context of Search Engine Keyword-Triggered Advertising, Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal, Volume 19, Number 12, December 2007, 1-8

  • Laurent, Philippe, Brussels High Court confirms Google News' ban, Computer Law & Security Report 2007, 290-293

  • Lawless, Matthew D., "Against Search Engine Volition" . Available at SSRN:

  • Lemley, Mark A., "Rationalizing Internet Safe Harbors" (April 10, 2007). Stanford Public Law Working Paper No. 979836 Available at SSRN:

  • Longdin, L. (2007). Hyperlinking and copyright infringement. New Zealand Business Law Quarterly, 13, 33-46

  • Magistrate Rules That Keyword Purchases, Metatag Use, Are Not "Use in Commerce", Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 459

  • Michael Driscoll , Will YouTube Sail into the DMCA’s Safe Harbor or Sink for Internet Piracy?, 6 J. MARSHALL REV. INTELL. PROP. L. 550 (2007).

  • Pasquale, Frank A., "Copyright in an Era of Information Overload: Toward the Privileging of Categorizers" . Vanderbilt Law Review, 2007 Available at SSRN:

  • Pasquale, Frank A. and Bracha, Oren, "Federal Search Commission? Access, Fairness and Accountability in the Law of Search" (July 23, 2007). Available at SSRN:

  • Plaintiff in Google Page Rank Challenge Hit With Rule 11 Sanctions for Baseless Suit, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 289-290

  • Search Ad Provider Owed Implied Duty Good Faith and Fair Dealing Under Contract, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 351

  • Tene, Omer, "What Google Knows: Privacy and Internet Search Engines" (October 2007). Available at SSRN:

  • Use of Trademark to Key Internet Ads May Be Use in Commerce, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 377

  • Utah Prohibits Search Keyword Advertising Triggered by "Electronic Registration Mark", Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 324-325

  • Utah Delays Implementation of Law Establishing Electronic Registration Mark, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2007, 426-427

  • Van Asbroeck, Benoit / Cock, Maud, Belgian newspapers v Google News: 2-0, Journal of Intellectual Property & Practice, 2007, Vol.2, No. 7, pages 463-466



  • Denis-Leroy, Laurence, Liability for Adwords Services in France, CRI 2008, 108-112

  • Deva, Surya, Yahoo! for Good and the right to privacy of internet users, Journal of Internet Law, 3/2008, 3-9

  • Fischman Afori, Orit, Implied License - An Emerging New Standard in Copyright Law (September 10, 2008). Santa Clara Computer and High Technology Law Journal, Vol. 25, 2008, available at SSRN:

  • Goldman, Eric,Brand Spillovers. Santa Clara Univ. Legal Studies Research Paper No. 09-01; Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 22, 2008. Available at SSRN:

  • Goryunov, Eugene, All Rights Reserved: Does Google's 'Image Search' Infringe Vested Exclusive Rights Granted Under the Copyright Law?(2008). John Marshall Law Review, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2008. Available at SSRN:

  • He, Huaiwen, Safe harbor provisions of Chinese law: How clear are search engines from liability?, Computer Law & Security Report 2008, 454-460

  • Hogertz, Alexander, Internet image ruling interpreted, Copyright World, issue 186, 10-11

  • Klein, Susanne, Search Engines and Copyright - An Analysis of the Belgian Copiepresse Decision in Consideration of British and German Copyright Law, IIC 2008, 451-483

  • Kramarsky, Stephen / Siegel, Kara, Examining Online Advertising: Search Engine Keywords and Trademark Use, Journal of Internet Law, 10/2008, 1, 16-24

  • Ling, Yutian, Note: Google Street View – Privacy Issues Down the Street, Across the Border, and Over the Seas (April 11, 2008). Boston University journal of Science and Technology Law, 2008. Available at SSRN:

  • McKenna, Mark P., "Trademark Use and the Problem of Source in Trademark Law" (January 18, 2008). Available at SSRN:

  • Mercadante, Joseph M., What is Google's Reputation Score? A Method for Modified Self-Regulation of Search (2008). Available at SSRN:

  • Munir, Abu Bakar / Teh, Tai Yong, Googling Data Protection: Don't be evil, C.T.L.R. 2008, 183-190

  •  Peguera, Miquel, I just know that I (actually) know nothing: Actual knowledge and other problems in ISP liability case law in Spain, EIPR 2008, 280-285

  • Peguera, Miquel, When the Cached Link is the Weakest Link: Search Engine Caches under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (May 21, 2008). Journal of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A., Vol. 56, Winter 2009, Available at SSRN:

  •  Pollock, Rufus, Is Google the Next Microsoft? Competition, Welfare and Regulation in Internet Search (September 9, 2008). Available at SSRN:

  • Shemtov, Noam, Searching for the right balance: Google, keywords advertising and trademark use, E.I.P.R. 2008, 470-474

  • Travis, Hannibal,Opting Out of the Internet in the United States and the European Union: Copyright, Safe Harbors, and International Law (August 12, 2008). Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 83, No. 4, 2008; Available at SSRN:

  • Turner, Mark / Callaghan, Dominic, You Can Look But Don't Touch! The Impact of the Google v Copiepresse Decision On the Future of the Internet, E.I.P.R. 2008, 34-38

  • Wilbur, Kenneth C. and Zhu, Yi, "Click Fraud" . Available at SSRN:


  • Batalla, Enrique, Sanmartìn, Marìa Jesùs, Lights and Shades on the Future of Keyword Advertising, CRI 2009, 165-169

  • Cornthwaite, Jonathan, AdWords or Bad Words? A UK Perspective and Trademark Infringement, E.I.P.R. 2009, 347-352

  • Czerniawski, Michal, Responsibility of Bittorrent Search Engines for Copyright Infringements (December 20, 2009). Available at SSRN:

  • Edwards, Eli, Stepping Up to the Plate: The Google-Doubleclick Merger and the Role of the Federal Trade Commission in Protecting Online Data Privacy (April 25, 2008). Available at SSRN:

  • Elhauge, Einer R.,Why the Google Books Settlement is Procompetitive(August 26, 2009). Harvard, John M. Olin Center for Law, Economics, and Business Discussion Paper No. 646. Available at SSRN:

  • Garon, Jon M.,Searching Inside Google: Cases, Controversies and the Future of the World’s Most Provocative Company (August 25, 2009). Available at SSRN:

  • Hausman, Jerry A. and Sidak, J. Gregory,Google and the Proper Antitrust Scrutiny of Orphan Books (August 2009). Journal of Competition Law & Economics, Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 411, 2009. Available at SSRN:

  • Hoofnagle, Chris Jay, Beyond Google and Evil: How Policy Makers, Journalists and Consumers Should Talk Differently About Google and Privacy (April 6, 2009). First Monday, Vol. 14, No. 4-6, April 2009. Available at SSRN:

  • Kenneddy, Charles, FTC Presses ist Attack on Behavioral Advertising, CRI 2009, 180-183

  • Laidlaw, Private Power, Public Interest: An Examination of Search Engine Accountability, International Journal of Law & Information Technology v17 no1 p113-45 Spr 2009

  • Peguera, Miquel, The DMCA Safe Harbors and Their European Counterparts: A Comparative Analysis of Some Common Problems (September 4, 2009). Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN:

  • Ruessmann, Laurent / Melin, Hanne, Ode to the Digital Single Market: And the Google AdWords case plays a part, CRI 2009, 161-165

  • Samuelson, Pamela, Legally Speaking: The Dead Souls of the Google Booksearch Settlement (April 16, 2009). Communications of the ACM, Vol. 52, July 2009. Available at SSRN:

  • Shoemaker, Don't Blame Google: Allowing Trademark Infringement Actions Against Competitors Who Purchase Sponsored Links on Internet Search Engines under the Initial Interest Confusion Doctrine, Catholic University Law Review, v58 no2 p535-66 Wint 2009

  • Viscounty, Perry / Barry, Jennifer / Olseon, Christopher, Trademark as Keyword: It's use, but is it confusing?, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2009, 564-569

  • Zeck, Keven, Referential Fair Use & Keyword Advertising: The Necessity of Product Placement to our Domestic System of Free-Market Enterprise, 44 Gonz. L. Rev. 519 2008-2009



  • Burdon, Mark, Privacy Invasive Geo-Mashups: Privacy 2.0 and the Limits of First Generation Information Privacy Laws (October 5, 2009). Journal of Law, Technology and Policy, No. 1, 2010. Available at SSRN:

  • Burk, Dan L., Cybermarks (May 6, 2010). Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 91, 2010. Available at SSRN:

  • Casarosa, Federica, Privacy in Search Engines: Negotiating Control (November 15, 2009),

  • Cornthwaite, Jonathan, To Key or not to Key? The Judgement of the European Court of Justice in the Google France AdWords cases, E.I.P.R. 2010, 352-359

  • Gonzàlez, Andrès, The Google and Publishers Settlement: Some legal and technical implications

  • Grimmelmann, James Taylor Lewis, Objections and Responses to the Google Books Settlement: A Report (May 13, 2010). Available at SSRN:

  • Haight, Geri / Peters, Carol, Considerations in Keyword Advertising: When Your Trademark Becomes The Key to Your Competitor's Ad, Electronic Commerce & Law Report 2010, 573-576

  • Isbell, Kimberly, The Rise of the News Aggregator: Legal Implications and Best Practices (August 30, 2010). Berkman Center Research Publication No. 2010-10. Available at SSRN:

  • Ji, Yuan, Why the Google Book Settlement Should Be Approved: A Response to Antitrust Concerns and Suggestions for Regulation (June 9, 2010). Albany Law Journal of Science and Technology, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN:

  • Kabateck/Gholian, Deterring bad faith clicks: Can the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act deter internet click fraud schemes, The Computer & Internet Lawyer, 7/2010, 1-6

  • Kemnitzer, Kristin, Beyond Rescuecom v. Google: The Future of Keyword Advertising, Berkeley Technology Law Journal Vol. 25:401 2010, 402-427

  • Koster/Brenckman, Billboards, Menus, or What? Getting a Handle on Keyword Advertising, The Computer & Internet Lawyer 5/2010, 1-11

  • Lee, Edward, Technological Fair Use (January 3, 2010). Southern California Law Review, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN:

  • Leonard, Gregory, The Google Books Settlement: Copyright, Rule 23, and Department of Justice § 2 Enforcement, The Computer & Internet Lawyer, Dec. 2010, 12 ff.

  • Malkawi, Bashar, Google’s use of Rescuecom’s trademark as an advertising keyword and the U.S. Federal Trademarks Act, Computer Law & Security Review 2010, 77-89

  • Manne, Geoffrey A. and Wright, Joshua D., Google and the Limits of Antitrust: The Case Against the Antitrust Case Against Google (March 24, 2010). Available at SSRN:

  • Peritz, Rudolph J.R. and Miller, Marc, An Introduction to Competition Concerns in the Google Books Settlement. NYLS Legal Studies Research Paper No. 0/10 #23,

  • Rothnie, Warwick, Of Keywords, AdWords and Trademark Infringement, Intellectual Property Forum (Australia),  Issue 83, December 2010, 32 ff.

  • Sangal, Tanushree, IP Issues in Linking, Framing and Keyword Linked Advertising, C.T.L.R. 2010, 64-67

  • Sartor, Giovanni and Viola de Azevedo Cunha, Mario, The Italian Google-Case: Privacy, Freedom of Speech and Responsibility of Providers for User-Generated Contents (May 11, 2010). Available at SSRN:

  • Ventose, Eddy D., Search and You Will Find: Google AdWords and Trade Mark Protection (January 12, 2010). Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice, 2010. Available at SSRN:

  • Walden, Ian, Mine host is searching for a "neutrality" principle!, Computer Law & Security Review, 2010, 203-209


  • Baden-Powell, Ed, Think before you link – Yesterday’s News: Today’s Copyright Conundrum, C.T.L.R. 2/2011, 25-28





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