Links & Law - Information about legal aspects of search engines, linking and framing

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Scientific Research about search engines and algorithms

  • Galitsky, Boris / Levene Mark, On the economy of Web links: Simulating the exchange process,
    "In the modern Web economy, hyperlinks have already attained monetary value as incoming links to a Web site can increase its visibility on major search engines. Thus links can be viewed as investment instruments that can be the subject of an exchange process. In this study we build a simple model performed by rational agents, whereby links can be bought and sold. Through simulation we achieve consistent economic behaviour of the artificial Web community and provide analysis of its micro– and macro–level parameters. In our simulations we take the link economy to its extreme, where a significant number of links are exchanged, concluding that it will lead to a winner take all situation."

  • Woo Park, Han, Examining the Determants of Who is Hyperlinked to Whom: A Survey of Webmasters in Koreo:
    This paper details the results of a conducted survey with 64 Korean Webmasters to examine the reasons Web sites form hyperlink networks with other sites.

  • Walker, Jill, Links and Power: The Political Economy of Linking on the Web:
    "Search engines like Google interpret links to a web page as objective, peer-endorsed and machine-readable signs of value. Links have become the currency of the Web. With this economic value they also have power, affecting accessibility and knowledge on the Web."

  • Harrison, Claire, Hypertext Links: Whither Thou Goest, and Why,
    "The link is the basic element of hypertext, and researchers have long recognized that links provide semantic relationships for users. Yet little work has been done to understand the nature of these relationships, particularly in conjunction with the purposes of organizational/informational Web sites. This paper explores the semantic and rhetorical principles underlying link development and proposes a systematic, comprehensive classification of link types that would be of use to researchers and Web production teams."

  • Pennock, David/ Flake, Gary/ Lawrence, Steve/ Glover, Eric/ Giles, C. Lee, Winners don't take all: Characterizing the competition for links on the web:
    "As a whole, the World Wide Web displays a striking "rich get richer" behavior, with a relatively small number of sites receiving a disproportionately large share of hyperlink references and traffic. However, hidden in this skewed global distribution, we discover a qualitatively different and considerably less biased link distribution among subcategories of pages for example, among all university homepages or all newspaper homepages."

  • Markwell, John/ Brooks, David, Broken Links: Just How Rapidly Do Science Education Hyperlinks Go Extinct?
    Did you know, the loss of URLs fits an extinction equation as follows X = X0*e(-0.013 * m) ?

  • April 24, 2002: Dean, Katie / Mayfield, Rotten Links Hamper Learning, Wired:
    "After 20 months, 18.8 percent of the total links had disappeared. Over 11 percent of dot-org links, 18.4 percent of dot-edu pages and 42.5 percent of dot-com addresses were lost since the study began."

  • Foot / Schneider / Dougherty / Xenos / Larsen, Analyzing Linking Practices: Candidate Sites in the 2002 US Electoral Web Sphere:
    "The article examines "the linking practices exhibited on Web sites produced by U.S. Congressional candidates during the 2002 campaign season, focusing on the extent and development of links from candidate Web sites to other types of political Web sites during the three months prior to the November, 2002 election" and offers "preliminary insights and a possible empirical model for managing the conceptual, methodological, and technological challenges entailed in developmental analysis of link-mediated relations."

  • Thelwall, Mike / Harries, Gareth, The Connection between the Research of a University and Counts of Links to its Web Pages: An Investigation Based Upon a Classification of the Realationship of Pages to the Research of the Host University:
    Results from recent advances in link metrics have demonstrated that the hyperlink structure of
    national university systems can be strongly related to the research productivity of the individual institutions. This paper uses a page categorization in order to show that restricting the metrics to subsets more closely related to the research of the host university can produce even stronger associations."

  • Thelwall, Mike, What is this link doing here? Beginning a fine-grained process of identifying reasons for academic hyperlink creation:
    "The purpose of this paper is to begin a fine-grained process of differentiating between creation motivations for links in academic Web sites and citations in journals on the basis that they are very different phenomena."


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